The Crisis Management and Disaster Response Centre of Excellence (CMDR COE), located in Sofia, the Republic of Bulgaria, was established on August 28, 2013. CMDR COE is an accredited NATO′s COE focusing its work on one of the Alliance’s core tasks – Crisis Management. CMDR COE gained an Unconditional Accreditation and NATO Quality Assurance Certificate (No.ACT/JFD/HCEIT/TT+1548/Ser:NU) in 2019.
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Roberto San José is professor of the Technical University of Madrid. Director of Environmental Software and Modelling Group in the Computer Science School of UPM. He has more than 300 scientific publications in relevant Journal Citation Index catalog. He completed his PhD in 1982 related to the unstable surface turbulent boundary layer parameterization. He has been involved in air pollution modelling mainly using three-dimensional mesoscale models, such as MM5 and CMAQ, WRF/chem and several CFD models covering all scales from climate modelling to microscale urban models. He is a Full Professor since 2001 up to now.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) models have experimented a considerable advance during the last years, in particular those focusing on solving urban air pollution situations. Different approaches have been used during last decade. Most of CFD urban models are based on the so called RANS approach (Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes equations). Recently, the advance of computer capabilities has pushed the inclusion of Large Eddy Simulation technique (LES) which has a different approach by using a spatial filter resolving the large eddies in the atmosphere and modelling the small eddies. One of the recent open models with LESS approach is the PALM4U model developed by the Leibnitz Hannover University in Germany. We have used an area in the downtown of Madrid city to set up the PALM4U model with 2 m spatial resolution. The vertical extent of the model is set up on 300 m with the same equally spaced resolution. The system receives the boundary and initial conditions from the WRF/chem mesoscale air quality model developed by NOAA/ESRL/GSD (US) team. WRF/chem is a well know state-of-the-art meteorological and chemical models for mesoscale applications. Results of the simulations show a high sensitivity to the changes in type of trees in urban parks with strong impacts (hot spots) in several areas located several hundred of meters away of the part. The system composed by both models is a reliable tool to be use for studying the impact of natural based solutions (NBS) in urban environments and for other pollution applications with very high spatial resolution. Hot spots, energy efficiency and health impact assessments at urban level are also areas where this complex tool can be applied.
Prof. Dr. Dimitrios Melas is a full professor of Environmental Physics at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Prof. Melas is B.Sc. in Physics from the University of Ioannina, Greece and a PhD degree in Meteorology form the University of Uppsala, Sweden. His main academic and professional activities include Air Quality Modeling, Monitoring and Assessment at Regional and Urban Scale, Mesoscale Meteorological Modeling, and Boundary-Layer Meteorology. He has participated in more than 80 EU, international or national funded projects, being the coordinator or principal investigator in 35 of them. He has more than 140 publications in peer-reviewed scientific journals and about 3000 third-party citations.
In the present study, a modeling system consisting of the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting model and the Urban Canopy Model is applied in high horizontal resolution (2 km) to study the UHI in the city of Thessaloniki, Greece. A qualitative and quantitative comparison was carried out between the model results (temperature and relative humidity) and observational data, collected from ground-based weather stations within the urban area. The results of the comparison showed a good agreement. Additionally, a heat-wave event for the city of Thessaloniki was selected, in order to assess the impacts of UHI on thermal comfort. The estimation of the selected bioclimatic indices revealed unpleasant thermal conditions for the urban population during summer hot days. The study was conducted in the framework of the research project LIFE ASTI (“Implementation of a forecAsting System for urban heaT Island effect for the development of urban adaptation strategies”).
MMag. Andrea Lamprecht is working at Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA), Department of Integrative Biology and Biodiversity Research, University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna Institute for Interdisciplinary Mountain Research, Austrian Academy of Sciences (Silbergasse 30/3, Vienna 1190) in Austria. The expertise of the speaker is in Ecology of high mountain vegetation, Vegetation ecology, Botany and Climate change. She is working in the field of biodiversity since 2002. In 2009 she established survey of a new GLORIA target region and of long-term-monitoring plots of dynamic areas and 2010 she did resurvey of long-term-monitoring plots of dynamic areas in Gesäuse National Park. Since 2011 she is part if the GLORIA Coordination unit. Since 2015 she started Dissertation at the BOKU: Responses of European alpine plants to climate change and other anthropogenic impacts across biomes with different climate regimes.
The Global Observation Research Initiative in Alpine Environments (GLORIA) is an international site-based monitoring network to measure the impacts of climate change on alpine plant diversity. Founded at the turn of the century, GLORIA now consists of over 130 monitoring sites, distributed over six continents, each with usually four subsites located in summit areas of different elevations. The alpine life zone, i.e., the area from the cold-determined tree line upwards, is especially suitable for the detection of global climate change impacts, due to its worldwide distribution from the tropics to the polar region, and due to the far lower level of direct human disturbance through land use, compared to lowland areas. The European chapter of GLORIA started several years earlier than on other continents, and, thus already can show some widespread climate-induced effects in alpine vegetation: (1) The majority of species are shifting towards higher elevations, which commonly leads to an increase of species numbers in summit areas; (2) in some regions, however, decreases in species numbers were observed, most likely due to combined effects of warming and drought. (3) Alpine vegetation showed a compositional transformation towards more thermophilus species and to species better adapted to drier soil conditions. (4) Species growing in the highest elevations in the Alps experienced substantial declines in abundance across a 20-years observation period.
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